Hebrews 13:17


Obey (peithesthe). Present middle imperative of peithÅ? with dative case.

Submit (hupeikete). Present active imperative of hupeikÅ?, old compound to yield under, to give up. Here only in N.T.

They watch (agrupnousin). Present active indicative of agrupneÅ? old verb (from agreÅ?, to search, hupnos, sleep), to seek after sleep, to be sleepless, be watchful (Mark 13:33).

As they that shall give account (hÅ?s logon apodÅ?sontes). Regular Greek idiom with hÅ?s and the future participle. For logon apodidÅ?mi, to render account, see Matthew 12:36. These leaders as good shepherds recognize keenly their responsibility for the welfare of the flock.

And not with grief (kai mē stenazontes). "And not groaning" (cf. Romans 8:23).

Unprofitable (alusiteles). Old double compound adjective (alpha privative and lusitelÄ“s and this from luÅ?, to pay, and telos, tax, useful or profitable as Luke 17:2), not profitable, not advantageous, by litotes, hurtful, pernicious. Common rhetorical litotes, here only in N.T.

Col. 2:8


Take heed (blepete). Present active imperative second person plural of blepÅ?, common verb for warning like our "look out," "beware," "see to it."

Lest there shall be any one (mē tis estai). Negative purpose with the future indicative, though the aorist subjunctive also occurs as in 2 Cor. 12:6.

That maketh spoil of you (ho sulagÅ?gÅ?n). Articular present active participle of sulagÅ?geÅ?, late and rare (found here first) verb (from sulÄ“, booty, and agÅ?, to lead, to carry), to carry off as booty a captive, slave, maiden. Only here in N.T. Note the singular here. There was some one outstanding leader who was doing most of the damage in leading the people astray.

Through his philosophy (dia tÄ“s philosophias). The only use of the word in the N.T. and employed by Paul because the Gnostics were fond of it. Old word from philosophos (philos, sophos, one devoted to the pursuit of wisdom) and in N.T. only in Acts 17:18. Paul does not condemn knowledge and wisdom (see Col. 2:2), but only this false philosophy, "knowledge falsely named" (pseudÅ?numos gnÅ?sis, 1 Tim. 6:20), and explained here by the next words.

And vain deceit (kai kenēs apatēs). Old word for trick, guile, like riches (Matthew 13:22). Descriptive of the philosophy of the Gnostics.

Tradition (paradosin). Old word from paradidÅ?mi, a giving over, a passing on. The word is colourless in itself. The tradition may be good (2 Thes. 2:15; 2 Thes. 3:6) or bad (Mark 7:3). Here it is worthless and harmful, merely the foolish theories of the Gnostics.

Rudiments (stoicheia). Old word for anything in a stoichos (row, series) like the letters of the alphabet, the materials of the universe (2 Peter 3:10, 12), elementary teaching (Hebrews 5:12), elements of Jewish ceremonial training (Acts 15:10; Galatians 4:3, 9), the specious arguments of the Gnostic philosophers as here with all their aeons and rules of life.

And not after Christ (kai ou kata Christon). Christ is the yardstick by which to measure philosophy and all phases of human knowledge. The Gnostics were measuring Christ by their philosophy as many men are doing today. They have it backwards. Christ is the measure for all human knowledge since he is the Creator and the Sustainer of the universe.

1 Tim. 5:7

That they may be without reproach (hina anepilÄ“mptoi Å?sin). See 1 Tim. 3:2 for anepilÄ“mptos. Final clause with hina and present subjunctive.

1 Tim. 5:8

Provideth not for his own (tÅ?n idiÅ?n ou pronoei). Condition of first class with ei and present active (or middle pronoeitai) indicative of pronoeÅ?, old verb, to think beforehand. Pauline word in N.T. only here, 2 Cor. 8:21; Romans 12:7. With genitive case.

He hath denied the faith (tēn pistin ērnētai). Perfect middle indicative of old verb arneomai. His act of impiety belies (Titus 1:16) his claim to the faith (Rev. 2:13).

Worse than an unbeliever (apistou cheirÅ?n). Ablative case of apistou after the comparative cheirÅ?n. Who makes no profession of piety.

1 Tim. 5:9

Let none be enrolled as a widow (chÄ“ra katalegesthÅ?). Present passive imperative of katalegÅ?, old verb, to set down in an official list, only here in N.T. "Let a widow be enrolled," the negative coming later, "having become of no less than sixty years" (mÄ“ elatton etÅ?n hexÄ“konta gegonuia). Second perfect active participle of ginomai. For the case of etÅ?n, see Luke 2:42. This list of genuine widows (1 Tim. 5:3, 5) apparently had some kind of church work to do (care for the sick, the orphans, etc.).

The wife of one man (henos andros gunē). Widows on this list must not be married a second time. This interpretation is not so clear for 1 Tim. 3:2, 12; Titus 1:6.

1 Tim. 5:10

If she hath brought up children (ei eteknotrophÄ“sen). Condition of first class. Late and rare word (Aristotle, Epictetus), first aorist active indicative of teknotropheÅ? (teknotrophos, from teknon, trephÅ?), here only in N.T. Qualification for her work as leader.

If she hath used hospitality to strangers (ei exenodochÄ“sen). First aorist again and same condition. Late form (Dio Cassius) of old verb xenodokeÅ? (Herodotus), to welcome strangers (xenous dechomai). Only here in N.T. Hospitality another qualification for such leadership (1 Tim. 3:2).

If she hath washed the saints' feet (ei hagiÅ?n podas enipsen). Same condition and tense of niptÅ? (old form nizÅ?), common in N.T. (John 13:5). Proof of her hospitality, not of its being a church ordinance.

If she hath relieved the afflicted (ei thlibomenois epÄ“rkesen). Same condition and tense of eparkeÅ?, to give sufficient aid, old word, in N.T. only here and 1 Tim. 5:16. Experience that qualified her for eleemosynary work.

If she hath diligently followed (ei epÄ“kolouthÄ“sen). Same condition and tense of epakoloutheÅ?, old verb, to follow close upon (epi). So here, 1 Tim. 5:24; 1 Peter 2:21. In a word such a widow must show her qualifications for leadership as with bishops and deacons.