2. Sinai Cycle B: Tabernacle and Celebration (7:1–10:10)

The second of the two Sinai cycles may be outlined as follows:

Sinai Cycle B: Tabernacle Celebration (7:1–10:10)

  1. Historical Reference—Tabernacle Completion (7:1)
  1. Tabernacle Offerings—Tribal Lists (7:1–89)
  1. Menorah Lamp Arrangement—Light (8:1–4)
  1. Levites’ Installation (8:5–26)
  1. The Second Passover: New Delineations (9:1–14)
  1. Pattern of the Journey: The Lord in the Cloud (9:15–23)
  1. Trumpets for Marching and Celebration (10:1–10)

(1) Offerings of the Leaders of the Israelite Tribes (7:1–89)

The first cycle focused God’s bountiful blessings on the delivered people and on their wholeness and holiness. The priests and Levites were assigned tasks in service of the sanctuary, matters of purification within the community were delineated, and a special form of dedicatory service was defined for the laity. The cycle concluded with the Priestly Benediction, which pronounced God’s plan to watch over his people and bless them with grace and peace. Through God’s blessing they would demonstrate to the nations all that was represented in his wondrous name.

The theme of the second Sinai cycle is the celebration of God’s presence. Note the following outline:

1. Historical Setting

After the completion of the tabernacle (7:1; 9:15)

Passover in the second year (9:1)

2. Twelve Tribe listing

Representatives of the twelve tribes bring offerings (7:2–89)

3. Cycle Development

Tabernacle Celebration: Offerings, Menorah Lamps, and Cloud (7:2–89; 8:1–3; 9:15–23; 10:1–10)

4. Priests and Levites

Installation of Levites for tabernacle Service (8:5–26)

5. Law and Purification

Passover Celebration—Second Month Alternative (9:1–14)

In deviating from the form outline, emphasis on the primary theme of tabernacle celebration in the cycle development is conveyed throughout. Two historical settings are provided: (1) tabernacle offerings at the completion of the tabernacle on the first day of the first month of the first year (7:1; 9:15) and the second Passover celebration beginning on the fourteenth day of the first month (9:1–2).

The twelve-tribe listing is integrated into the offerings for the tabernacle, thus reflecting the unity and harmony of the people of God in worship. The repetitiveness of the offerings provides a continuously resonant reminder of the total tribal support for the worship center (the tabernacle), the worship leadership (the priesthood), the worship process (sacrifice), and the worshiped God (Yahweh, who gives graciously to his special creation). In cycles three through five, this fellowship will be shattered by rebellion against God, Moses, and Aaron and the priesthood, refusal of the gracious gift of the Promised Land, and rejection of the tribal harmony represented in this section.

The Levites are installed via purification ritual for their declared purpose of serving as God’s intermediaries in the worship process. Further matters of law are set forth in relation to the necessary purification for the celebration of God’s salvation in the Exodus. The law makes provision for persons rendered unclean for various reasons to celebrate the Passover. The section concludes with the instruction for the people to move out from Sinai and into the larger wilderness in harmony with the symbol of God’s presence, following the divine cloud as heralded by the priests on the silver trumpets.

1When Moses finished setting up the tabernacle, he anointed it and consecrated it and all its furnishings. He also anointed and consecrated the altar and all its utensils. 2Then the leaders of Israel, the heads of families who were the tribal leaders in charge of those who were counted, made offerings. 3They brought as their gifts before the LORD six covered carts and twelve oxen—an ox from each leader and a cart from every two. These they presented before the tabernacle.

4The LORD said to Moses, 5“Accept these from them, that they may be used in the work at the Tent of Meeting. Give them to the Levites as each man’s work requires.”

6So Moses took the carts and oxen and gave them to the Levites. 7He gave two carts and four oxen to the Gershonites, as their work required, 8and he gave four carts and eight oxen to the Merarites, as their work required. They were all under the direction of Ithamar son of Aaron, the priest. 9But Moses did not give any to the Kohathites, because they were to carry on their shoulders the holy things, for which they were responsible.

10When the altar was anointed, the leader brought their offerings for its dedication and presented them before the altar. 11For the LORD had said to Moses, “Each day one leader is to bring his offering for the dedication of the altar.”



Historical Setting and Introduction (7:1–11). 7:1–11 The initial historical setting for this section is the conclusion of the construction of the tabernacle in the Sinai Desert at the foot of God’s mountain, described in Exod 40:17 as the first day of the first month of the second year. The following synchronous table shows the sequence of events from Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers:

Chronology of Events in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers

Date

Scripture

Event

1.14.1

Exod 14:6, 31–32

Exodus from Egypt

3.14.1

Exod 19:1

Israelites arrive at Sinai

1.1.2

Exod 40:2, 17

Tabernacle erected with Tent of Meeting

Lev 8:1–36

Priestly sanctification begins

Lev 1:1–7:38

Altar offerings commence

Num 7:1, 3

Tribal offerings begin

Num 9:15

Cloud covers tabernacle

1.8.2

Lev 9:1

Priestly sanctification concluded

1.12.2

Num 7:78–83

Tribal offerings completed

1.14.2

Num 9:1

Second Passover

2.1.2

Num 1:1–2

First census commences

2.14.2

Num 9:11

Second Passover for the Unclean

2.20.2

Num 10:11

Cloud moves — Israel departs Sinai

The first day of the second year after the Exodus was a momentous day that saw the completion of the tabernacle, the commencement of sacrificial offerings, gifts for worship service from the tribe of Judah, provision from the tribes of carts and oxen for tabernacle transport, and the settling of the cloud of the presence of God. A people in communion with God was ready to worship in harmony and experience his abiding presence.

The narrative preterite form wayĕhî introduces a new narrative section that resets the historical setting in the context of Moses’ completion of the tabernacle construction and sanctification. It also introduces the general overview of the chapter in 7:2–11 and marks the division of the chapter in v. 12, where the daily presentation of offerings by each of the tribes commences. An inclusio utilizing the term yaqrîbû (“they brought near”) brackets the section, thereby emphasizing the process of approaching the altar, the point of mediation with God, with various gifts. Coppes observes that this common technical term in the cult “connotes every step man performs in presenting his offering to God.” Nominal and verbal forms of qārab occur thirty-five times in this chapter.

At the completion of the tabernacle construction, Moses carries out the ritual purification of the structure and its furnishings via anointing with oil (mšḥ) and consecrating (qdš) rites, thus setting them apart for special service by the priests and Levites in the center of Yahweh worship. Attention then is turned to the altar toward and upon which the tribal offerings will be brought and sacrificed and the various utensils employed. The same anointing and consecrating rites were exercised in the dedication of the altar. The initial collective gifts of carts and oxen for transportation of the tabernacle and its goods are donated equally by the leaders of the tribes. The two carts and four oxen presented by Moses to the Gershonites were for carrying the various curtains and coverings for the tabernacle (4:21–28), and the four carts and eight oxen presented to the Merarites provided the necessary means for transporting the poles, bases, crossbars, ropes, and other framing structures (4:29–33). Ithamar the priest was appointed as overseer of the activities of these two clans of Levites. None of the carts and oxen were granted to the Kohathites, since they were to transport the ark and other implements of worship on their shoulders with the poles. Moses plays the role of mediator and facilitator in accepting the carts and oxen from the tribal leaders and formally presenting them to the Levites.

Notable is the fact that these gifts, as well as the plenteous vessels and offerings that follow in vv. 12–88, were presented by the tribal leaders spontaneously (rather than by divine command) as the people responded to God’s graciousness and faithfulness. In harmonious concert the tribal leaders, as representatives of the larger population of Israelites, voluntarily initiated these acts of service of the God who brought them forth from Egypt, constituted them as a nation, and provided them the Torah. The Lord desires all his people to respond to his faithfulness by harmonious service and willful giving of themselves and their abundance. By doing so they offer complete worship.

12The one who brought his offering on the first day was Nahshon son of Amminadab of the tribe of Judah. 13His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 14one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 15one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 16one male goat for a sin offering; 17and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Nahshon son of Amminadab.

18On the second day Nethanel son of Zuar, the leader of Issachar, brought his offering. 19The offering he brought was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 20one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 21one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 22one male goat for a sin offering; 23and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Nethanel son of Zuar.

24On the third day, Eliab son of Helon, the leader of the people of Zebulun, brought his offering. 25His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 26one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 27one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 28one male goat for a sin offering; 29and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Eliab son of Helon.

30On the fourth day Elizur son of Shedeur, the leader of the people of Reuben, brought his offering. 31His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 32one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 33one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 34one male goat for a sin offering; 35and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Elizur son of Shedeur.

36On the fifth day Shelumiel son of Zurishaddai, the leader of the people of Simeon, brought his offering. 37His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 38one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 39one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 40one male goat for a sin offering; 41and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Shelumiel son of Zurishaddai.

42On the sixth day Eliasaph son of Deuel, the leader of the people of Gad, brought his offering. 43His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 44one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 45one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 46one male goat for a sin offering; 47and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Eliasaph son of Deuel.

48On the seventh day Elishama son of Ammihud, the leader of the people of Ephraim, brought his offering. 49His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 50one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 51one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 52one male goat for a sin offering; 53and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Elishama son of Ammihud.

54On the eighth day Gamaliel son of Pedahzur, the leader of the people of Manasseh, brought his offering. 55His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 56one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 57one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 58one male goat for a sin offering; 59and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Gamaliel son of Pedahzur.

60On the ninth day Abidan son of Gideoni, the leader of the people of Benjamin, brought his offering. 61His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 62one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 63one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 64one male goat for a sin offering; 65and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Abidan son of Gideoni.

66On the tenth day Ahiezer son of Ammishaddai, the leader of the people of Dan, brought his offering. 67His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 68one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 69one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 70one male goat for a sin offering; 71and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Ahiezer son of Ammishaddai.

72On the eleventh day Pagiel son of Ocran, the leader of the people of Asher, brought his offering. 73His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 74one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 75one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 76one male goat for a sin offering; 77and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Pagiel son of Ocran.

78On the twelfth day Ahira son of Enan, the leader of the people of Naphtali, brought his offering. 79His offering was one silver plate weighing a hundred and thirty shekels, and one silver sprinkling bowl weighing seventy shekels, both according to the sanctuary shekel, each filled with fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering; 80one gold dish weighing ten shekels, filled with incense; 81one young bull, one ram and one male lamb a year old, for a burnt offering; 82one male goat for a sin offering; 83and two oxen, five rams, five male goats and five male lambs a year old, to be sacrificed as a fellowship offering. This was the offering of Ahira son of Enan.



Tribal Gifts Delineated (7:12–83). 7:12–83 In resounding fashion each of the twelve tribal leaders brings corresponding contributions of cultic vessels and sacrificial offerings, presented before the altar for the community worship of Yahweh, God of Israel. G. Wenham notes that the presentation offerings by representatives from each of the tribes “set a precedent and demonstrated that the worship was for every tribe and supported by every tribe.” For twelve successive days, beginning on the first day of the first month, a tribal head would present his assortment of gifts before Aaron and Moses in the outer court where the altar had been placed. No one tribe superseded another in the type or magnitude of the offerings, thereby echoing the unity and harmonious effort of the community through its designated leaders.

The pattern of the text for each of the tribal presentations is as follows: (1) day of presentation, (2) identity of the tribal leader, (3) vessel offerings, (4) sacrificial offerings, (5) inclusio of the identity of the tribal leader. Levine describes chap. 7 as “primarily an administrative record” of the priestly cultic tradition. Following the traditional pattern of temple records of the ancient Near East, Levine suggests that the original text was a tabular list, “intended to be read both horizontally and vertically.” The textual structure of the first three days reflects a progressive compression of the introductory formula for describing the presentation, after which the pattern is consistent in vv. 24–83. Levine states: “The system of numeration employed in Num 7:12–88 is perhaps the most revealing feature of all, because it directly links biblical records to known methods of ancient Near Eastern accounting. In Num 7:12–88 the sequence of numeration is (a) item, (b) numeral (quantity); for example, bāqār šĕnayim, ‘oxen–2.’” G. Wenham claims, however, that the repetitive nature of the material is primarily theological. He writes: “It seems likely that a theological purpose underlies his wordiness: to emphasize as strongly as possible that every tribe had an equal stake in the worship of God, and that each was fully committed to the support of the tabernacle and its priesthood.” Actually both may have played a part in the form of the text as it now stands. The original accounting by Moses, Aaron, and his sons the priests may have been in tabular form after the manner of ancient Near Eastern accounting. Then fully incorporated into the narrative form of the text. The various vessels in the tabular account are listed in descending order by weight, as are the various animals sacrificed under each category. The list for each of the twelve tribal leaders is as follows:

Item

Weight

Contents

1 Silver Plate

130 shekels

fine flour + oil (grain offering)

1 Silver Bowl

70 shekels

fine flour + oil (grain offering)

1 Gold Dish

10 shekels

incense

Offering Type

Animals

Consecration: Burnt (‘ōlâ)

1 young bull 1 ram 1 lamb (yr old male)

Atonement: Sin offering (ḥaṭṭā’āt)

goat (male)

Communion: Peace/well-being

2 oxen 5 rams 5 goats 5 lambs (yr old male) (šĕlômîm)

The craftsmen of the three types of utensils used the sanctuary shekel, a measurement used in the cultic context for weighing gifts and sacrifices or determining their monetary value. The term shekel was used throughout the Levant and Mesopotamia as a standard weight measure, generally ranging from ten to thirteen grams. Milgrom and Wenham compute the resultant weights of the objects as approximately three pounds for the large silver plate, two pounds for the silver basin, and four ounces for the small gold ladle for the incense.

The order of the offerings in each of the tribal presentations reflects an administrative setting rather than the normal functional order within the cult. A. F. Rainey noted that the grain and oil offerings are listed within the context of the vessels in which they are administered in the cultic practice rather than in conjunction with the various animal offerings they accompanied in the actual sacrificial procedures. Only the guilt offering (Lev 5:14–6:7; 7:1–10) is not mentioned in this context of consecration and celebration. As Wenham notes, “The guilt offering was not a part of the normal round of official sacrifices. It was reserved for serious sins, such as sacrilege, the abuse of oaths, adultery with a slave girl, or breach of the Nazirite vow.” No specific covenant abrogation is outlined in this context of celebration, and the sin offerings presented are those that are necessary for general atonement prior to consecration and fellowship sacrifices. The normal ritual sequence of the sacrifices was atonement/sin—consecration/burnt— communal/peace, as is evidenced in the ordination and inauguration of the Aaronic priesthood (Lev 8:1–9:21). Hence, the order presented is for administrative purposes rather than for setting the prescribed sequence for each of the offerings. The overarching purpose of the text in the Book of Numbers is the setting forth of a theology of worship and celebration that emphasizes the collective unity and harmony of the people of God, the abundant sacrificial giving of the people, the equal status of all offerers, the role of representative leadership, and the responsiveness of God, who provides for and communes with his faithful servants.

Tribal Order of Presentation

1. JUDAH

Nahshon ben Amminadab (7:12–17)

2. ISSACHAR

Nathanel ben Zuar (7:18–23)

3. ZEBULUN

Eliab ben Helon (7:24–29)

4. REUBEN

Elizur ben Shedeur (7:30–35)

5. SIMEON

Shelumiel ben Zurishaddai (7:36–41)

6. GAD

Eliasaph ben Deuel (7:42–47)

7. EPHRAIM

Elishama ben Ammihud (7:48–53)

8. MANASSEH

Gamaliel ben Pedahzur (7:54–59)

9. BENJAMIN

Abidan ben Gideoni (7:60–65)

10. DAN

Ahiezer ben Ammishaddai (7:66–71)

11. ASHER

Pagiel ben Ocran (7:72–77)

12. NAPHTALI

Ahira ben Enan (7:78–83)

The order of the tribes is the same as in 2:2–31, which outlines the organization of the tribes around the central sanctuary and the order of the march through the wilderness. The account in Num 10:14–28 also reflects the tribal order of the first march from Sinai. These same patriarchal princes of the tribes, who led the way in bringing the offerings, would be appointed (in different order) to conduct the first census at the beginning of the second month, or two and one-half weeks after the completion of the offering presentations. Again the unity and harmony of the people of God in worship and service are emphasized in the text.

84These were the offerings of the Israelite leaders for the dedication of the altar when it was anointed: twelve silver plates, twelve silver sprinkling bowls and twelve gold dishes. 85Each silver plate weighed a hundred and thirty shekels, and each sprinkling bowl seventy shekels. Altogether, the silver dishes weighed two thousand four hundred shekels, according to the sanctuary shekel. 86The twelve gold dishes filled with incense weighed ten shekels each, according to the sanctuary shekel. Altogether, the gold dishes weighed a hundred and twenty shekels. 87The total number of animals for the burnt offering came to twelve young bulls, twelve rams and twelve male lambs a year old, together with their grain offering. Twelve male goats were used for the sin offering. 88The total number of animals for the sacrifice of the fellowship offering came to twenty-four oxen, sixty rams, sixty male goats and sixty male lambs a year old. These were the offerings for the dedication of the altar after it was anointed.



Summary of Offerings Presented (7:84–88). 7:84–88 In the characteristic Pentateuchal pattern, a summary total of all of the offerings is delineated. Again the phrase “dedication of the altar when it was anointed” provides the literary bracketing (inclusio) for the section of the text, connecting the summary with literary symmetry to the introduction in vv. 1 and 11. The repetition of the phrase “dedication of the altar” (ḥănukat hammizbēaḥ) in another inclusio likewise provides unity to the literary subunit of vv. 84–88. Totals of the cultic items and offerings are as follows:

Item

Weight

Total

12 Silver Plates

130 shekels

1,560 shekels

12 Silver Bowls

70 shekels

840 shekels

Silver total 2,400 shekels

12 Gold Dishes

10 shekels

120 shekels

Offering Type

Total Animals

Consecration: Burnt (‘ōlâ)

12 young bulls 12 rams 12 lambs (1 yr. male)

Atonement: Sin offering (ḥaṭṭā’āt)

12 goats (male)

Communion: Peace/well-being

24 oxen 60 rams 60 goats 60 lambs (1 yr. male) (šĕlômîm)

Conclusion: Dedication Offerings for the ALTAR after anointed
Cf. to cleansing of the Holy Place on Yom Kippur

89When Moses entered the Tent of Meeting to speak with the LORD, he heard the voice speaking to him from between the two cherubim above the atonement cover on the ark of the Testimony. And he spoke with him.



Yahweh Speaks with Moses (7:89). 7:89 The conclusion to this concert of celebration in the presentation of gifts and offerings is revelation, which fulfills the promise of Exod 25:22, “There, above the cover [mercy seat] between the two cherubim that are over the ark of the Testimony, I will meet with you and give you all my commands for the Israelites.” Earlier Moses is described as meeting with Yahweh in a tent outside the camp, and the people worshiped God as they observed the cloud descending upon it. The Tent of Meeting had been set up in the tabernacle on the first day of the first month (Exod 40:2–17), but Moses was not able to enter the Tent at that time when the cloud covered the Tent and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle (Exod 40:34–35). But now, with the completion of the tabernacle and the twelve days of consecration, Yahweh meets with Moses in the midst of his people, revealing himself in a new setting. The ultimate fulfillment and demonstration of this image is expressed by the apostle John when he declared: “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling [“tabernacled”] among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:14).

Many critical scholars take this passage as an unrelated appendage to the story of the tabernacle consecration. Davies succinctly epitomizes this viewpoint: “This verse is clearly an isolated fragment bearing no obvious connection with what precedes or with what follows.” From a slightly different vantage point, Levine describes the import of this verse as “phenomenological,” designed to bring together two source traditions: (1) to “acknowledge the function of the tabernacle as an oraculum” (Elohist) and (2) cult and sacrificial role of the tent (Priestly).” The sequence of this passage following the tabernacle celebration, however, closely parallels that of Lev 8:1–9:24. After the instructions to offer the same set of sacrifices for priestly ordination—namely sin, burnt, and fellowship—Moses and Aaron entered and exited the Tent of Meeting (9:23); and then the glory of the Lord appeared to the people. Joy and worship ensued. In Num 7:89 divine disclosure followed the bringing of sacrifices. As Harrison summarizes, “The Lord is communicating through Moses to the people and by implication making Himself available to the Israelites when they need an intermediary through whom they can present petitions to him.” Additionally, the following chapter may contain a portion of the word received from the Lord in this setting.

—New American Commentary