Holman CSB Bullet Notes

Holman CSB Bullet Notes are one of the unique features of the Holman Christian Standard Bible®. These notes explain frequently used biblical words or terms. These "bullet" words (for example: ●abyss) are normally marked with a bullet only on their first occurrence in a chapter of the biblical text. However, certain important or easily misunderstood terms, such as ●Jews or ●slaves, will have more than one bullet per chapter. Other frequently used words, like ●gate, are marked with bullets only where the use of the word fits the definitions given below. A few words in the footnotes, like ●acrostic, also have a bullet.

Abaddon Either the grave or the realm of the dead
Abba The Aramaic word for "father"
abyss The bottomless pit or the depths (of the sea); the prison for Satan and the demons
acrostic A device in Hebrew poetry in which each verse begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet
advocate (see "Counselor/advocate")
Almighty (see "God Almighty")
Alpha and Omega The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet; it is used to refer to God the Father in Rv 1:8 and 21:6, and to Jesus, God the Son, in Rv 22:13.
Amen The transliteration of a Hebrew word signifying that something is certain, valid, truthful, or faithful; it is often used at the end of biblical songs, hymns, and prayers.
Arabah The section of the Great Rift in Palestine, extending from the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqabah. The Hebrew word can also be translated as "plain," referring to any plain or to any part of the Arabah.
Asaph A musician appointed by David to oversee the music used in worship at the Temple; 12 psalms are attributed to Asaph.
Asherah pole(s) (see "Asherah(s)")
Asherah(s) A Canaanite fertility goddess, who was the mother of the god Baal; also the wooden poles associated with the worship of her
Ashtoreth(s) A Canaanite goddess of fertility, love, and war, who was the daughter of Asherah and consort of Baal; the plural form of her name in Hebrew is Ashtaroth.
Asia A Roman province that is now part of modern Turkey; it did not refer to the modern continent of Asia.
asleep A term used in reference to those who have died
atone/ atonement A theological term for God's provision to deal with human sin. In the OT, it primarily means purification. In some contexts forgiveness, pardon, expiation, propitiation, or reconciliation is included. The basis of atonement is substitutionary sacrifice offered in faith. The OT sacrifices were types and shadows of the great and final sacrifice of Jesus on the cross.
Baal A fertility god who was the main god of the Canaanite religion and the god of rain and thunderstorms; also the Hebrew word meaning "lord," "master," "owner," or "husband"
Beelzebul A term of slander, which was variously interpreted "lord of flies," "lord of dung," or "ruler of demons"; 2 Kg 1:2; Mk 3:22
burnt offering(s) Or holocaust, an offering completely burned to ashes; it was used in connection with worship, seeking God's favor, expiating sin, or averting judgment.
cause the downfall of/ causes to sin The Greek word skandalizo has a root meaning of "snare" or "trap," but has no real English counterpart.
centurion A Roman officer who commanded about 100 soldiers
Cephas The Aramaic word for rock; it is parallel to the Greek word petros from which the English name Peter is derived; Jn 1:42; 1 Co 1:12.
cherubim A class of winged angels, associated with the throne of God, who function as guardians and who prevented Adam and Eve from returning to the garden of Eden
chief priest(s) A group of Jewish temple officers that included the highpriest, captain of the temple, temple overseers, and treasurers
company/ regiment Or cohort, a Roman military unit that numbered as many as 600 men
completely destroy (see "set apart for destruction/ completely destroy")
Counselor/ advocate The Greek word parakletos means one called alongside to help, counsel, or protect; it is used of the Holy Spirit in Jn and in 1 Jn.
cubit An OT measurement of distance that equaled about 18 inches
Cush/ Cushite The lands of the Nile in southern Egypt, including Nubia and Northern Sudan; the people who lived in that region
Decapolis Originally a federation of 10 Gentile towns east of the Jordan River
denarius A small silver Roman coin, which was equal to a day's wage for a common laborer
divination An attempt to foresee future events or discover hidden knowledge by means of physical objects such as water, arrows, flying birds, or animal livers
engaged Jewish engagement was a binding agreement that could only be broken by divorce.
ephod A vestlike garment, extending below the waist and worn under the breastpiece, which was used by both the priests and the high priest
everyone/ human race Literally, sons of man or sons of Adam
family redeemer A family member who had certain obligations of marriage, redeeming an estate, and punishment of a wrongdoer
fear(s) God or the Lord/ the fear of the Lord No single English word conveys every aspect of the word fear in this phrase. The meaning includes worshipful submission, reverential awe, and obedient respect to the covenant-keeping God of Israel.
firstfruits The agricultural products harvested first and given to God as an offering; also the first of more products to come
fellowship sacrifice(s) or offering(s) An animal offering was given to maintain and strengthen a person's relationship with God. It was not required as a remedy for impurity or sin but was an expression of thanksgiving for various blessings. An important function of this sacrifice was to provide meat for the priests and the participants in the sacrifice; it was also called the peace offering or the sacrifice of well-being.
gate(s) The center for community discussions, political meetings, and trying of court cases
Gittith Perhaps an instrument, musical term, tune from Gath, or song for the grape harvest
God Almighty The Hebrew word is El Shaddai; El = "God," but the meaning of Shaddai is disputed; traditionally it is translated "Almighty".
grain offering(s) An offering given along with animal sacrifices or given by itself. A portion was burnt and the priests and participant ate the remainder.
Hades The Greek word for the place of the dead; it corresponds to the Hebrew word Sheol.
Hallelujah! Or Praise the Lord!; it literally means Praise Yah! (a shortened form of Yahweh)
headquarters /palace The Latin word Praetorium was used by Greek writers for the residence of the Roman governor; it may also refer to military headquarters, the imperial court, or the emperor's guard.
Hebrew Or Aramaic; the translation of this word is debated since some claim Aramaic was commonly spoken in Palestine during NT times. More recently others claim that Hebrew was the spoken language.
hell/hellfire Greek Gehenna; Aramaic for Valley of Hinnom on the south side of Jerusalem; it was formerly a place of human sacrifice and in NT times a place for the burning of garbage; the place of final judgment for those rejecting Christ.
Herod The name of the Idumean family ruling Palestine from 37 b.c. to a.d. 95; the main rulers from this family mentioned in the NT are:
Herod I (37 b.c.-4 b.c.) also known as Herod the Great; built the great temple in Jerusalem and massacred the male babies in Bethlehem
Herod Antipas (4 b.c.-a.d. 39) son of Herod the Great; ruled one-fourth of his father's kingdom (Galilee and Perea); killed John the Baptist and mocked Jesus
Agrippa I (a.d. 37-44) grandson of Herod the Great; beheaded James the apostle and imprisoned Peter
Agrippa II (a.d. 52-c. 95) great-grandson of Herod the Great; heard Paul's defense
Herodians Political supporters of Herod the Great and his family
Higgaion Perhaps a musical notation, a device denoting a pause in an instrumental interlude, or a murmuring harp tone
high place(s) An ancient place of worship most often associated with pagan religions, usually built on an elevated location
horn A symbol of power based on the strength of animal horns
Hosanna A term of praise derived from the Hebrew word for save
Hosts/hosts Military forces consisting of God's angels, sometimes including the sun, moon, and stars, and occasionally, Israel
human race (see "everyone")
I assure you This is a phrase used only by Jesus to testify to the certainty and importance of His words; in Mt, Mk and Lk it is literally Amen, I say to you, and in Jn it is literally Amen, amen, I say to you.
Jew(s) In Jn the term Jews usually indicates those in Israel who were opposed to Jesus, particularly the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem who led the nation.
Leviathan Or twisting one; a mythological sea serpent or dragon associated with the chaos at creation. Sometimes it is applied to an animal such as a crocodile.
life/soul The Greek word psyche can be translated life or soul.
mankind Literally sons of man or sons of Adam
Mary Magdalene Or Mary of Magdala; Magdala was probably on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, north of Tiberias.
Maskil From a Hebrew word meaning to be prudent or to have insight; possibly a contemplative, instructive, or wisdom psalm
men Literally sons of man or sons of Adam
mercy seat Or place of atonement; the gold lid on the ark of the covenant, first used in the tabernacle and later in the temple
Messiah Or the Christ; the Greek word Christos means "the anointed one".
Miktam A musical term of uncertain meaning, possibly denoting a plaintive style
Milcom An Ammonite god who was the equivalent of Baal, the Canaanite storm god
Molech A Canaanite god associated with death and the underworld. The worship ritual of passing someone through the fire is connected with him. This ritual could have been either fire-walking or child sacrifice.
Most High The Hebrew word is Elyon. It is often used with other names of God, such as El (God) or Yahweh (Lord); it is used to refer to God as the supreme being.
Mount of Olives A mountain east of Jerusalem, across the Kidron Valley
Mystery Transliteration of the Greek word mysterion; a secret hidden in the past but now revealed
Nazarene A person from Nazareth; growing up in Nazareth was an aspect of the Messiah's humble beginnings; Jn 1:46.
Negev An >arid region in the southern part of Israel; the Hebrew word means "south".
offend (see "cause the downfall of/ cause to sin")
offspring/ seed This term is used literally or metaphorically to refer to plants or grain, sowing or harvest, male reproductive seed, human children or physical descendants, and also to spiritual children or to Christ (G13:16).
One and Only Or one of a kind, or incomparable, or only begotten; the Greek word can refer to someone's only child such as in Lk 7:12; 8:42; 9:38. It can also refer to someone's special child as in Heb 11:17.
oracle A prophetic speech of a threatening or menacing character, often against the nations
overseer(s) Or elder(s), or bishop(s)
palace (see "headquarters/palace")
Passover The Israelite festival celebrated on the fourteenth day of the first month in the early spring. It was a celebration of the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, commemorating the final plague on Egypt when the firstborn were killed.
people Literally sons of man or sons of Adam
perverted men (see "wicked men/perverted men")
Pharisee(s) In Judaism a religious sect that followed the whole written and oral law
Pilate Pontius Pilate was governor of the province of Judea a.d. 26-36.
Pit Either the grave or the realm of the dead
proconsul The chief Roman government official in a senatorial province who presided over Roman court hearings
proselyte A person from another race or religion who went through a prescribed ritual to become a Jew
Rabbi The Hebrew word Rabbi means my great one; it is used of a recognized teacher of the Scriptures.
Rabshakeh The title of a high-ranking Assyrian official who was the chief cupbearer to the king
Rahab Or boisterous one, a mythological sea serpent or dragon defeated at the time of creation. Scripture sometimes uses the name metaphorically to describe Egypt.
Red Sea Literally Sea of Reeds
regiment (see "company/regiment")
restitution offering(s) An offering that was a penalty for unintentional sins, primarily in relation to the tabernacle or temple; traditionally trespass or guilt offering
sackcloth Garment made of poor quality material and worn as a sign of grief and mourning
sacred bread Literally bread of presentation; 12 loaves, representing the 12 tribes of Israel, put on the table in the holy place in the tabernacle, and later in the temple. The priests ate the previous week's loaves; Ex 25:30; 29:32; Lv 24:5-9.
Sadducee(s) In Judaism a religious sect that followed primarily the first 5 books of the OT (Torah or Pentateuch)
Samaritan(s) People of mixed, Gentile/ Jewish ancestry who lived between Galilee and Judea and were hated by the Jews
Sanhedrin The supreme council of Judaism with 70 members, patterned after Moses' 70 elders
scribe(s) A professional group in Judaism that copied the law of Moses and interpreted it, especially in legal cases
seed (see "offspring/seed")
Selah A Hebrew word whose meaning is uncertain; various interpretations include: (1) a musical notation, (2) a pause for silence, (3) a signal for worshipers to fall prostrate on the ground, (4) a term for the worshipers to call out, and (5) a word meaning "forever"
set apart for destruction/ completely destroy In Canaan or its neighboring countries, this was the destruction during war of a city, its inhabitants, and their possessions, including livestock.
shekel(s) In the OT the shekel is a measurement of weight that came to be used as money, either gold or silver.
Sheminith A musical term meaning instruments or on the instrument of eight strings
Sheol A Hebrew word for either the grave or the realm of the dead
Shinar A land in Mesopotamia, including ancient Sumer and Babylon; modern Iraq
sin offering(s) Or purification offering, the sin offering was the most important OT sacrifice for cleansing from impurities. It provided purification from sin and certain forms of ceremonial uncleanness.
slave The strong Greek word doulos cannot be accurately translated in English by "servant" or "bond servant"; the HCSB translates this word as "slave," not out of insensitivity to the legitimate concerns of modern English speakers, but out of a commitment to accurately convey the brutal reality of the Roman empire's inhumane institution as well as the ownership called for by Christ.
Son of Man The most frequent title Jesus used for Himself; Dn 7:13
song of ascents Probably the songs pilgrims sang as they traveled the roads going up to worship in Jerusalem; Pss 120-134
soul (see "life/soul")
stumble (see "cause the downfall of/ cause to sin")
synagogue A place where the Jewish people met for prayer, worship and teaching of the Scriptures
synagogue A place where the Jewish people met for prayer, worship and teaching of the Scriptures
tabernacle Or tent, or shelter, terms used for temporary housing
take offense (see "cause the downfall of/ cause to sin")
tassel Fringe put on the clothing of devout Jews to remind them to keep the law; Nm 15:37-41
temple complex In the Jerusalem temple, the complex included the sanctuary (the holy place and the holy of holies), at least 4 courtyards (for priests, Jewish men, Jewish women, and Gentiles), numerous gates, and several covered walkways.
testimony A reference to either the Mosaic law in general or to a specific section of the law, the Ten Commandments, which were written on stone tablets and placed in the ark of the covenant (also called the ark of the testimony)
Topheth A place of human sacrifice outside Jerusalem in the Hinnom Valley; Jr 7:31-32; see "hell/hellfire"
Unleavened Bread A seven-day festival celebrated in conjunction with the Passover; Ex 12:1-20
Urim & Thummim Two objects used by Israelite priests to determine God's will
wadi A seasonal stream that flows only in the rainy season
walk A term often used in a figurative way to mean "way of life" or "behavior"
wicked men/ perverted men Literally sons of Belial; the basic meaning of Belial in Hebrew is "worthless".
wise men The Greek word is magoi; the English word "Magi" is based on a Persian word. They were eastern sages who observed the heavens for signs and omens.
woman When used in direct address, "Woman" was not a term of disrespect but of honor.
world The organized Satanic system that is opposed to God and hostile to Jesus and His followers. The non-Christian culture including governments, educational systems, and businesses
wormwood A small shrub used as a medicinal herb, noted for its bitter taste
Yah (see "Yahweh")
Yahweh Or The Lord; the personal name of God in Hebrew; "Yah" is the shortened form of the name.

Table of Weights and Measures

Biblical Unit Language Biblical Measure U.S. Equivalent Metric Equivalent Various Translations
Gerah Hebrew 1/20 shekel 1/50 ounce .6 gram gerah; oboli
Beqa Hebrew 1/2 shekel or 10 gerahs 1/5 ounce 5.7 grams bekah; half a shekel; quarter ounce; fifty cents
Pim Hebrew 2/3 shekel 1/3 ounce 7.6 grams 2/3 of a shekel; quarter
Shekel Hebrew 2 bekahs 2/5 ounce 11.5 grams shekel; piece; dollar; fifty dollars
Litra (pound) Greco-Roman 30 shekels 12 ounces .4 kilogram pound; pounds
Mina Hebrew/ Greek 50 shekels 11/4 pounds .6 kilogram mina; pound
Talent Hebrew/ Greek "3,000 shekels or 60 minas" 75 pounds/88 pounds 34 kilograms/40 kilograms talent/talents; 100 pounds
Hand-breadth Hebrew 1/6 cubit or 1/3 span 3 inches 8 centimeters handbreadth; three inches; four inches
Span Hebrew 1/2 cubit or 3 handbreadths 9 inches 23 centimeters span
Cubit/Pechys Hebrew/ Greek 2 spans 18 inches .5 meter cubit/cubits; yard; half a yard; foot
Fathom Greco-Roman 4 cubits 2 yards 2 meters fathom; six feet
Kalamos Greco-Roman 6 cubits 3 yards 3 meters rod; reed; measuring rod
Stadion Greco-Roman 1/8 milion or 400 cubits 1/8 mile 185 meters miles; furlongs; race
Milion Greco-Roman 8 stadia "1,620 yards" 1.5 kilometer mile
Xestes Greco-Roman 1/2 cab 1 1/6 pints .5 liter pots; pitchers; kettles; copper pots; copper bowls; vessels of bronze
Cab Hebrew 1/8 ephah 1 quart 1 liter cab; kab
1668Choinix Greco-Roman 1/18 ephah 1 quart 1 liter measure; quart
Omer Hebrew 1/10 ephah 2 quarts 2 liters omer; tenth of a deal; tenth of an ephah; six pints
Seah/Saton Hebrew/ Greek 1/3 ephah 7 quarts 7.3 liters measures; pecks; large amounts
Modios Greco-Roman 4 omers 1 peck or 1/4 bushel 9 liters bushel; bowl; peck-
Ephah [Bath] Hebrew 10 omers 3/5 bushel 22 liters bushel; peck; deal; part; measure; six pints; seven pints
Letek Hebrew 5 ephahs 3 bushels 110 liters half homer; half sack
Kor [Homer]/ Koros Hebrew/ Greek 10 ephahs 6 bushels or 200 quarts/14.9 220 liters/525 liters cor; homer; sack; measures; bushels/ sacks; measures; bushels or 500 quartsbus
Log Hebrew 1/72 bath 1/3 quart .3 liter log; pint; cotulus
Xestes Greco-Roman 1/8 hin 1 1/6 pints .5 liter pots; pitchers; kettles; copper bowls; vessels of bronze
Hin Hebrew 1/6 bath 1 gallon or 4 quarts 4 liters hin; pints
Bath/Batos Hebrew/ Greek 1 ephah 6 gallons 22 liters gallon(s); barrels; liquid measures; gallons; barrels; measures
Metretes Greco-Roman 10 hins 10 gallons 39 liters firkins; gallons